Technical Assistance: Socialist Republic of Viet Nam: Air Pollution, Poverty, and Health Effects in Ho Chi Minh CityPosted on: 9 December 2008 - 3:50pm
The experimental work described here, forms part of a major interdisciplinary study to assess the scientific and socio-economic implications of environmental threats to urban and peri-urban agriculture in India, with particular emphasis on the livelihoods of the poor.
Innovative methods are used to share the emerging experimental findings with a wide range of stakeholders, and to consider them in the context of the constraints faced by the urban poor, and by the authorities charged with environmental and agricultural policy planning and implementation.
Determinants of Child Mortality in Low-Income Countries: Empirical Findings from Demographic and Health SurveysPosted on: 9 December 2008 - 11:52am
Empirical studies on child mortality at a disaggregate level, i.e. by social-economic group, or geographic location, can provide useful information for designing poverty focused interventions.
Using Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) data, this study investigates determinants of child mortality in low-income countries both at the national level, and for rural and urban areas separately.
An interwoven problem of poverty and environmental degradation in Lake Imbakucha in Ecuador was affecting the surrounding communities. Water-borne diseases were spreading, agricultural output was dropping, and by the year 2000, 85% of the area's population lived in poverty. This report describes Oxfam America and the Center for Pluricultural Studies' Integral Management Plan for the Lake Imbakucha Basin, which includes programs for:
The Environment Matters 2005 cluster around the theme of environmental health, focusing on subjects such as: economic valuation of health impacts of environmental risks; an overview of what we know about the effectiveness of interventions in water and sanitation; an indoor air pollution study from Guatemala; how the Bank’s Clean Air Initiative works in several regions; and an article on the risks chemicals pose to human health.
This guidance note examines the conditions which determine whether an environmental hazard is responsible for a substantial amount of disease, and whether feasible measures are available to prevent it. It considers three problems which account for nearly three quarters of the environmental burden of disease: water, sanitation and hygiene, indoor air pollution, and injuries.
The project aims to pilot a community-based approach to forest land rehabilitation for agent orange-affected areas to support local water supply improvement and reduce health risks. The project also seeks to improve rural income generation and forest resources management.
Poverty, Conservation, and Health: Responding to the Challenges of Human Welfare in the Asia-Pacific RegionPosted on: 2 December 2008 - 1:29pm
|Poverty, Health and Ecosystems: Experience from Asia is a joint undertaking of the Asian Development Bank (ADB) and the World Conservation Union (IUCN). The book will be launched on 8 August 2006 in Bangkok, Thailand.|
Without proper medical care, continued exposure of the developing world's poor to a deteriorating environment creates health concerns that become major issues in proper environmental management. Global evidence reveals that lack of access to safe water and sanitation and air pollution are the primary causes of illness and death among poor families, affecting women and children mostly.
This feature introduces articles and documents related to poverty and environmental health added to the PE Net index:
"The toll environmental degradation exacts on human health is heavy, especially for children in the poor regions of the world. In the poorest countries, one out of every five children dies before reaching his or her fifth birthday, usually because of an environmentally related -- and largely preventable -- diseases," the World Resources Institute mentions in their publication "Improving health through environmental action."
Air and water pollution contribute significantly to the health problems of the poor. "Persons with lower socioeconomic status may face higher risk from polluted air. This disproportionate burden may result from elevated exposure, due to proximity to roadways or indoor air pollution from burning of biomass, and from differences in nutrition and access to health care, among other factors," according to "Challenges and recommendations for the study of socioeconomic factors and air pollution health effects" a paper published in Environmental Science & Policy.
As climate change effects are felt all over the world, it becomes increasingly important to prepare for its effects on the poorest communities as well. The Climate and Health Fact Sheet (WHO) provides basic information, in line with the World Health Organization's programs that "combat infectious disease, improve water sanitation and services, and respond to natural disasters to help reduce health vulnerability to future climate change."
Deforestation, when left unchecked, also raises concerns. A recent publication, "Poverty, Health and Ecosystems: Experience from Asia" (ADB/IUCN), contains the case study "Deforestation and the Nipah Virus in Malaysia", which is part of a chapter that explores the effects of ecosystem events on the health of the poor. The book contains 16 case studies that document relationships between poverty, health, and natural resources management in Asia. The launch version was featured here, and the final publication will be released soon.
Publications focusing on solutions include the Environmental Health Project's "Advancing Environmental Health for Disease Prevention: Past Experiences and Future Priorities," a collection of lessons learned from five years of work on hygiene improvement and the control and prevention of malaria. "Health, Environment and Sustainable Development. Identifying Links and Indicators to Promote Action" (Epidemiology Resources Inc.) presents a framework that extends to the policy domain and recommends acting on the driving forces that generate environmental pressures.
Photos: Near a national highway in India (Richard Abrina), collecting waste in drums (ADB's Poverty and Environment Program), and women cooking in Bangladesh (Raul Del Rosario)