Pollution and Health
Arjun Thapan, ADB Director General for Southeast Asia, discusses the urgent need to address untreated wastewater, which is responsible of 1 in 4 child deaths in Asia. 90% of wastewater in Asia's urban centers is not treated. Solutions lie in investment in wastewater management.
During the last decades, Thailand has seen a remarkable economic growth. While it has resulted in increased prosperity and wellbeing for many, the environment has taken a great toll.
Today, large scale environmental degradation is threatening the livelihood of people who rely directly on natural resources.
Environmental Consequences of and Pollution Control Options for Pond "Tra" Fish Production in Cantho City, Viet NamPosted on: 12 May 2011 - 4:26pm
This EEPSEA study from Vietnam looks at the pollution problem caused by fish farming in the Mekong Delta (MD) and assesses a number of treatment options that could bring this pollution down to acceptable levels. It finds that a trickling-filter system would be the most costeffective response to this challenge. However such a system would cost farmers more than they currently pay to discharge their polluting wastewater. The study therefore suggests a number of policy options that
would encourage fish farmers to reduce the amount of pollution they discharge and help them to meet the necessary clean up costs.
Pollution Control Options for Handicraft Villages: The Case of Duong Lieu Village in the Red River Delta, Viet NamPosted on: 12 May 2011 - 3:16pm
This EEPSEA study from Vietnam looks at the pollution problem caused by the processing of agricultural products in the Red River Delta. It also assesses the cost-effectiveness of various pollution control options. It focuses on a village where 95% of households are engaged in cassava starch processing. It finds that this activity is a significant source of pollution, which is
seriously affecting the health of local rivers and local people.
In recent years, Chinese policy makers have tried to balance development in different regions of the country by relocating industrial production from prosperous zones to less developed areas.
However, this type of industrial relocation is usually accompanied by the transfer of pollution
problems. To shed more light on the costs and benefits of this important policy tool, an EEPSEA study looks at the relocation of ceramics production from one region of Guangdong Province to another.
Designing a Choice Modelling Survey to Value the Health and Environmental Impacts of Air Pollution from the Transport SectorPosted on: 12 May 2011 - 1:42pm
Poor air quality in Indonesia’s capital city is having a significant impact on residents’ health and there is an urgent need to introduce new initiatives to deal with the problem. To help justify investment in such new strategies, this EEPSEA study looked at the value that citizens in the Jakarta Metropolitan Area (JMA) place on pollution reduction policies for the transportation sector. It shows that, although many residents are mistrustful of the government’s ability to clean up the city’s air, they do place a significant value on clean air.
In 1986, a waste-to-energy plant opened in Delhi, India, financed by the Danish International Development Agency at a cost of over $10 million. The plant was expected to generate 3.8 megawatts of electricity from garbage, and its success was to be copied in other Indian cities. However, the plant was a failure. Two years later, the government was spending about $100,000 a year to burn garbage without producing energy. Surprisingly, the principal reason was the fact that there wasn't enough urban waste in Delhi.
This paper examines the linkages of poverty and environment at the household level in
Philippine slums. Rapid urbanization and the inadequate infrastructure and basic services in large
towns and cities have led to the proliferation of slums and informal settlements in the country.
While poverty incidence of population in key metropolitan centers is on average 17% compared to
the national average of 32%, slum population has been exponentially rising at an average rate of
3.4%. In Metro Manila, which is the prime city, an estimated 37% of population or over 4.0 million Filipinos live in slums in 2010 and slum population growth rate is at 8% annually. These slum dwellers and informal settlers confront on a daily basis another dimension of poverty which is
environmental poverty. The underserviced and bad living conditions in slums impact on health,
livelihood and the social fiber. The effects of urban environmental problems and threats of climate change are also most pronounced in slums due to their hazardous location, poor air pollution and solid waste management, weak disaster risk management and limited coping strategies of households. It has also been argued in several studies that possible trade-offs exist between bad housing and medical care and between bad housing and education. Bad living environment thus
deepens poverty, increases the vulnerability of both the poor and non-poor living in slums and
excludes the slum poor from growth.
The Gender, Poverty and Environmental Indicators on African Countries Report is published by the Statistics Department of the African Development Bank Group. The publication provides some information on the broad development trends relating to gender, poverty and environmental issues in the 53 African countries. Gender, Poverty and Environmental Indicators on African Countries 2010 was prepared by the Economic and Social Statistics Division of the Statistics Department.
This report summarizes the current state of water pollution and water pollution management strategies in the People's Republic of China (PRC). It also provides specific recommendations for implementing market-based policy instruments, such designed to mitigate water pollution and its negative effects. Market-based instruments such as water quality trading, fees and taxation, and private-public partnerships, have been tested internationally and in the PRC, and may be used as guide in implementing positive environmental policy reforms in the country. Success with such instruments provides a blueprint for developing more sophisticated water pollution control strategies using policy innovations to achieve greater benefits at lower costs. The Asian Development Bank is providing technical assistance to aid the government in its quest to identify the best possible options for ensuring clean water for its citizens. Experiences gained in the PRC can be relevant to practitioners in the other developing countries as well.