Pasture degradation is very serious and widespread in Mongolia. The problem has been aggravated by three severe winters (1999-2001) characterized by heavy accumulations of snow or ice crusts on pastures. This phase III project will build on 3 years of successful field research under projects 100410 and 100875. These efforts resulted in the formation of community herder groups and the establishment of pasture co-management teams involving herders, local government representatives and members of civil society. The current phase aims to scale up earlier interventions and empower local communities through more efficient, sustainable use of pasture and other natural resources.